The ability to trigger arbitrary code execution from one machine on another (especially via a wide-area network such as the Internet) is often referred to as remote code execution.
In computer security, “arbitrary code execution” is used to describe an attacker’s ability to execute any command of the attacker’s choice on a target machine or in a target process. It is commonly used in arbitrary code execution vulnerability to describe a software bug that gives an attacker a way to execute arbitrary code.
A program that is designed to exploit such a vulnerability is called an arbitrary code execution exploit. Most of these vulnerabilities allow the execution of machine code and most exploits, therefore, inject and execute shellcode to give an attacker an easy way to manually run arbitrary commands.